The Senegal Timer: Pr. Francis A. Boyle’s Theory & Other Issues

In his book (1), International Law professor Francis Boyle suggests an interesting explanation to the puzzling discovery of the MST-13 in Dakar on February 20 1988.

You will note that when all these allegations began to emerge from Senegal, that exact same week the Financial Times of London reported that Senegal’s public debts had been miraculously rescheduled by the Paris Club at a highly preferential rate that Senegal was not entitled to. It was pretty clear that someone in Senegal  had been bought off.

One thing is certain. The early months of 1988 were tense in Senegal. Not just because of the Presidential election that Diouf won over Wade who was rumoured to have received funding from Gaddafi.

Certainly, the financial crisis had turned into a food crisis and Wade was, of course, playing that card. According to Diouf’s biography, the US Ambassador played a very helpful role during these hard times.

But keep in mind that, at the very same time, Senegal was negotiating the release of the French hostages in Lebanon. While taking his instructions from Collin and Diouf, Senegalese religious leader Sheikh Zein was going in between the French and the Iranian leaders.


In January 1988, Zein visited President Khamenei in Tehran. French Minister Michel Aurillac visited Dakar (and Zein) in February. In March, French Interior Minister Charles Pasqua came to Dakar where he stayed at the Presidential Palace and discussed the release of the hostages with Zein. The next month, Zein was in Paris. In May, the three French hostages (Kauffmann, Carton, Fontaine) were released.

On 18 September 1989, a Lebanese newspaper published a letter from the kidnappers reminding Paris that the promises made during the negotiations had not been kept by the French. The next day, a DC 10 (UTA 772) exploded…


1. Destroying Libya and World Order.

2. Senegal wins improved deals on its debts. George Graham. Financial Times London, June 25 1991.

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2 Responses to The Senegal Timer: Pr. Francis A. Boyle’s Theory & Other Issues

  1. Craig says:

    I do not doubt noted issues and connectivity of various circumstances including the unfortunate hostage matters.
    My view is that I accept entities were bought off with regard to this.

    Not to sure about the FT [for obvious reasons] noted direct financial influence of reduction or significant new terms.
    Senegal, as part of the Paris Club would have always been in line for significant new terms with another 20 countries.
    Apparently the ‘Toronto Terms’ were agreed October 1988.

    “Senegal Debt Crisis and the HIPC Initiative.
    Before the HIPC Initiative, Senegal had been to the Paris Club 13 times, between 1981 and 2000. In addition to debt rescheduling, it benefited from all the bilateral “debt relief” schemes, from the Toronto proposal in 1988 to the Cologne proposal in 1999. But, these schemes made little impact on its debt burden, in part because they did not address its root causes and the structural factors that perpetuate it.
    With the intensification of structural adjustment policies, multilateral debt increased very rapidly. It averaged 64% of total debt between 1995 and 2003, against 36% for bilateral debt. Debt owed to the World Bank group accounted for 75.3%, while debt owed to the World Bank and IMF accounted for 86% of multilateral debt (Senegal, 2005c: 75). This explains these institutions’ great influence in Senegal’s policies.
    The rapid rise in the debt level led to a concomitant increase in the debt service. For instance, debt service after rescheduling absorbed 11% of tax revenues in 1994; 27.6% in 1996 and 22.6% in 2000 (Senegal, 2003c: 75). Between 1990 and 1999, the annual debt service absorbed more than $200 million. In other words, the external debt had become a major obstacle to the country’s economic growth and social progress.”


  2. Craig says:

    Who to believe….. ?
    Hezbollah Seen Setting Up Terror Network in Africa
    November 27, 1989
    September 23, 1989


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