Category Archives: Laminate

Anatomy of a Copper Clad Laminate. Part V: Post-processing of the Copper Foils

The “standard” copper treatment consists of microscopic copper nodules deposited over the copper “teeth” on the bath-side of the foil. (see photomicrograph below) To reduce oxidation and make a more thermally stable treatment, brass, zinc or sometimes nickel is plated … Continue reading

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Anatomy of a Copper Clad Laminate. Part IV: Copper Foils

“Most foils used in FR-4 manufacture are electrodeposited type foils. These are manufactured by plating copper onto slowly revolving drum-shaped cathodes that are partially immersed in the plating solution. As the drum revolves, the plated copper deposit is removed from … Continue reading

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Anatomy of a Copper Clad Laminate. Part II: Fiber-Glass Cloth

“Glass cloth acts as the main structural reinforcement in most laminates. The rigidity and strength offered by glass compliments the binding, encapsulating and insulating properties of the epoxy resin.  The singular fibre-glass filament is the building block with which glass … Continue reading

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PT/35(b): Analysis of the resin at Ciba

The watermark “S I B” visible ( Well, at least visible to anyone except to the experts of the CIA and the FBI as explained in: The THURING Board Watermark: FBI Analysis ) on the main board of the MEBO MST-13 timers seems to … Continue reading

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Anatomy of a Copper Clad Laminate. Part III: Epoxy Resins

“The function of the resin is to act as a ‘glue’ to hold the laminate together. Epoxy resins can be purchased from various vendors at various steps of manufacture. Epoxy resin can be had in a liquid form so that … Continue reading

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Anatomy of a Copper Clad Laminate. Part I: Introduction

“A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper … Continue reading

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